Delving Into Atomic Theory: Comprehending The Structure Of Universe

Have you ever been shocked by questions like:

How our universe came into existence?

What are this world's building blocks, and how does everything get the present look?

How can we understand our universe?

All these questions are supposed to be answered by atomic theory. The atomic theory first fell to the luckiest ear around two thousand years ago. Since then, the theory has been modified by observations, arguments, and experimentation. Many natural sciences like Chemistry, Biology, and Physics encounter atomic theory to some extent.

If you have a curious mind, do not skip any section of this article because it will discuss the basics of atomic theory, providing you with its summarized history.

What Is Atomic Theory?

An intelligible scientific study of the structure and properties of atoms is known as atomic theory. It came into existence as a philosophical doctrine but later emerged into science. Our universe is made up of tiny particles that are called atoms. So, understanding the nature of our universe requires us to be familiar with its building block, atoms.

Story of Atomic Theory


The story of atomic theory goes back to Democritus. Have you ever heard about Democritus? He was one of the most thinking and critical minds of ancient Greece. A philosopher whose ideas affected the thinking of a thousand after him. The philosopher believed and proposed that our universe is composed of tiny indivisible particles that are unbreakable, unchangeable, and every that we see around us is made up of them. He named these particles atoms. And Democritus' ideas evolved as an atomic theory with some modifications.

Dalton's Atomic Theory

As a school or college student, we expect you to be familiar with John Dalton, an American Chemist, Physicist, and meteorologist. His works and research on color blindness made him a central figure in the world of science in the 19th century. But his atomic theory is considered his most celebrated work in the history of chemistry. His theory starts the same as Democritus': All matter is composed of indestructible particles. But Dalton further progressed the theory by saying that atoms of an element are recognizable in mass and properties. Plus, he introduces compounds saying that a compound is a combination of two or more than two atoms.

Thomson's Discovery of Electron

J.J Thomson is not an unknown person for you if you have studied even ABC of chemistry. Thomson discovered the electron in 1897, which led to further developments of the atomic model.

Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment

Rutherford is celebrated as the discoverer of the nucleus, the central part of an atom. He, in a sequence of experiments in 1911, bombarded alpha particles on a thin sheet of gold. He observed that all particles were passing straight, but some of them changed direction. So, he discovered that an atom has a thin, dense, positively charged center, known as a nucleus.

Modern Atomic Theory

Bohr's Model of The Atom

Neil Bohr developed his model suggesting that an electron orbits the nucleus with a specific energy in a particular shell. His doctrine and model were based on the fact that electrons emit light on losing their energy.

Schrodinger's Wave Equation

Schrodinger came up with his wave equation in 1926. It is a fundamental equation in quantum mechanics that tells us about the behavior of electrons and describes, how they change their behavior over time. Moreover, it sheds light on how a wave particle behaves in different circumstances. It is the probability of finding a particle in different locations and motions.

Quantum Mechanics

You will be surprised to hear that a particle such as an electron or proton can change its behavior. Quantum mechanics is a field of study focusing on the behavior of particles at atomic and subatomic levels. It took birth in the early 20th century to understand the behavior of particles.

Application Of Atomic Theory

Atomic theory is applicable to a large number of fields in the modern. Some of its applications are mentioned below:

Nuclear Energy

One of the most important applications of atomic theory is in the field of nuclear energy. Nuclear reactors generate heat to produce electricity by using atomic reactions. Nuclear energy is capable of producing a huge amount of heat without causing greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, we can say that it is one of the most important uses of atomic theory in the present time.


Atomic theory is used in medicine for the treatment of cancer. DNA damage is caused by high-energy radiation to kill the cancer cells. Additionally, atomic theory can be applied to medicine through X-ray and MRI machines by which doctors can see inside the body of a patient.

Life Sciences

Atomic theory helps us understand life sciences. For example, without understanding nuclear theory, you cannot understand the structure of DNA. DNA contains nucleotides that are composed of carbon, nitrogen, and hydron atoms. So, we have to understand how these atoms combine with each other to make a nucleotide and then how DNA is composed of nucleotides in order to understand DNA's function for research.


To be concluded, atomic theory is essential to understand our words. Plus, its use in our daily life, such as electricity and medicine, suggests that we should know about its basics. We hope that our article has given you an overview of atomic theory. Be in touch with us for such informative blogs and articles, along with assistance in your academics.

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